(1996-1998) * FLHTC-U Electra Glide Classic-Ultra & Anniversary (1989-1997) * FLHTC-UI Electra Glide Classic-Ultra & Anniversary (1996-1998) * FLTC Tour Glide (1984-1991) * FLTC-U Tour Glide-Ultra Classic (1989-1995) * FLTC-UI Tour Glide-Ultra Classic (1996) * FLTR Road Glide (1998) * FLTR-I Road Glide (1998) * FXEF Fat Bob (1985) * FXLR Low Rider Custom & Anniversary (1987-1994) * FXR Super Glide (1986-1994) * FXR2 & FXR3* Super Glide (*Limited edition models available only in 1999) * FXRD Super Glide Grand Touring (1986) * FXRS Low Rider & Convertible (1984-1992) * FXRS-Con Low Rider-Convertible (1991-1993) * FXRS-SP Low Rider-Sport Edition (1988-1993) * FXRT Sport Glide (1984-1992) * FXSB Low Rider (1985) * FXWG Wide Glide (1985-1986) Contents: * Quick Reference Data * General Information Manual Organization / Warnings Cautions And Notes / Safety / Serial Numbers / Front And Rear Pads / Front And Rear Caliper / Front And Rear Master Cylinder / Brake Hose And Line / Brake Disc / Bleeding / Specifications * Cruise Control Cables / Servo Motor / Cruise Module Control Module And Switch / Specifications * Body Seat / Front And Rear Fender / Fairing And extra
FXEF 1200cc 1970 – 1980 * FLT FLTC/U FLH FLHF FLHR FLHS FLHT FLHTC/U 1340cc 1978 – 1999 * FXR FXRS FXRS-SP FXRS-CONV FXLR FXRD FXRT 1340cc 1982 – 1999 * FXB FXD FXE FXDG FXDL FXDWG FXDS-CONV FXEF FXS FXSB FXWG FXST FXSTC FXSTS FLST FLST-SP FLSTC FLSTF FLSTN 1340cc 1979 – 1999 * FXD FXDB FXDC FXDL FXDS-CONV FXDWG 1340cc 1991 – 1998 Please note: This manual DOES NOT include police models. Contents: * Living With Your HARLEY-DAVIDSON BIG TWIN Introduction: Miwaukee magic; Ackowledgements; About this manual; Identification numbers: buying spare parts; decoding the Vehile Identification Number (VIN); Safety first! * Daily (Pre-Ride) Checks: Engine oil level check; Suspension steering and final-drive checks; Tyre checks. * Maintenance Routine Maintenance and Servicing: Specifications; Recommended lubricants and fluids; Component locations; Maintenance schedule; Maintenance procedures. * Repairs And Overhaul Engine Transmission and Associated Systems: Engine; Clutch primary drive and transmission; Fuel and exhaust systems; Ignition system. * Chassis and Bodywork Components: Steering; Suspension; Final drive; Wheels; Brakes; Tyres; Frame and bodywork. * extra
organization / Notes cautions and warnings / Safety first / Service hints / Serial Numbers / Parts replacement / Torque specifications / Fasteners / Lubricants / Sealants cements and cleaners / Expendable supplies / Basic hand tools / Test equipment / Measuring tools / Special tools / Mechanic * TROUBLESHOOTING Operating requirements / Troubleshooting instruments / Testing electrical equipment / Engine performance / Electric starting system / Charging system / Ignition system / Fuel system / Engine noises / Engine lubrication / Clutch / Transmission / Electrical problems / Excessive vibration / Front suspension and steering / Brakes / Specifications * PERIODIC LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP Pre-ride inspection / Maintenance intervals / Periodic lubrication / Oil and filter change / Lifter oil screen cleaning / Transmission oil change / Primary chaincase oil change adjustment / Transmission top cover / Shifter cam / Shift forks / Transmission side door / Transmission shafts / Main drive gear / Transmission case / Transmission side cover / Oil tank / Specifications * FUEL EXHAUST AND EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS Air filter backplate / Carburetor / information
The Evolution motor (popularly known as Evo) try an air-cooled, 45-degree, V-twin motor manufactured from 1984 by Harley-Davidson for company’s motorbikes. It had been manufactured in the 1,340 cc (82 cu in) displacement for Harley-Davidson gigantic V-twins bikes, changing the Shovelhead motor until 2000 once the last EVO had been put into a production factory customized FXR4 (FXR2 and FXR3 were 1st CVO’s). In 1999, it had been changed because of the Harley-Davidson Twin Cam 88 within the Touring and Dyna model and in 2000 inside Softail brands. Also available in the Sportster model starting in 1986, it absolutely was manufactured in the 1,100 cc (67 cu in) displacement until 1988 and is still built in the 883 cc (53.9 cu in) and 1,200 cc (73 cu in) displacements for the Harley-Davidson Sportster, changing the ironhead Sportster engine.
Many experts consider the advancement become the engine that saved the reorganized Harley-Davidson team from specific personal bankruptcy. Harley-Davidson’s formal title for system had been most likely associated with the business’s try to reform their picture following the 1981 administration buyout from past holder United states device and Foundry (AMF).
Both the heads and cylinders of development system are made of aluminum to lessen pounds versus a cast-iron build. Air cooling efficiency try improved as aluminum try a superior thermal conductor to cast-iron. The blocky rocker containers (therefore getting nicknamed “block head” which never ever caught on), aluminum heads and cylinders (also referred to as “jugs”) are the only the main development engine which can be considered essential; the Big Twin and Sportster incarnations associated with the Evolution tend to be somewhat various.
The machine construction of the Harley-Davidson Sportster, which has basically already been unchanged since its beginning since the side-valve 750cc “K” design in 1952, was retained aided by the development motor upgrade in 1986, causing a unique valve train setup. Unlike virtually any more motor in production these days, the Sportster advancement makes use of one cam per motor overhead-valve, resulting in four specific, single-lobe, gear-driven camshafts. The cam lobes tend to be thus all situated one behind another, and pushrods are arrayed in pairs (front side and back) parallel to the cylinder axis as a result. This allows each lifter and pushrod to deflect from cam lobes perpendicular toward lobe jet. This setup try friendly to radical, high-output webcams, making the Sportster Evolution a normal option for the once Harley-Davidson owned type of Buell Motorcycle Company sportbikes from 1986 as much as belated 2009 (2010 model 12 months).
The Sportster development system have remained mostly unchanged from 1986 to the current day, though adjustment towards transmission, final drive and engine supports have necessitated adjustment towards the Sportster advancement circumstances. Building is virtually completely equivalent between 883 cc and 1,200 cc models; the main difference between the 2 are a smaller bore regarding 883 cc (inherited from its earlier “ironhead” moms and dad), with somewhat various heads. Conversion rates from 883 cc to 1,200 cc were relatively inexpensive and commonplace, and less expensive than the purchase price premium to go from an 883 to 1,200 motor on a new bike. Carburetors had been standard on Sportster engines until 2007, when they had been changed by the Delphi Electronic Sequential-Port gas injections (ESPFI) system.
A simplified derivative associated with the system ended up being utilized on the Buell Blast entry-level bike from 2000 to 2009. The Sportster engine as used on the Buell Blast was at more methods like the one applied to Sportsters, albeit using rear cylinder eliminated, and also other concessions to lessen overall expense and repair.
Advancement on the huge bikes
The Evolution gigantic Twin spotted a fifteen-year run-in Harley-Davidson’s Dyna, Softail, FXR, and Touring frames, although a limited few Evolutions were utilized into the 2000 design seasons CVO FXR4, and 1999 FXR2 and FXR3 versions. Whilst the biggest circumstances was just a little changed from the past Shovelhead system, the most truly effective end had been notably enhanced.
The 1340cc advancement uses one, four-lobe, gear-driven camshaft operating just above the crankshaft axis. Although this simplifies camshaft replacement, it complicates the top Twin valve train with tappet/lifters and pushrods that each and every deflect from the camshaft at wildly various perspectives. The Big Twin pushrods posses a definite helical look as the vertical plane created by each cylinder’s rockers (front-to-back) is exactly perpendicular towards vertical airplane created because of the cam lobes (left-to-right). The need for one lifter and pushrod set to reach completely out to the most outboard cam lobe gives increase to the gigantic Twin’s tell-tale offset lifter assemblies, where forward lifter construction is located slightly farther completely and rotated allow the device equipment to help make the get to.
The major Twin has been accompanied by a variety of major drives and transmissions, both on production Harley-Davidson motorcycles as well as in customized solutions. The aftermarket collection of add-ons for these closely relevant techniques was broad, as it’s the motor itself.
The Evolution Big twin-motor was, until the introduction of this Twin Cam engine, the last regarding the line of single cam, overhead valve engines tracing their lineage back into the seminal Knucklehead design penned by creator Bill Harley. It is also the biggest aftermarket supported Harley-Davidson build, to date, with clones associated with the engine becoming produced by 3rd parties like S&S Cycle and several other individuals. Harley reverted to one cam build with the Milwaukee-Eight system, initially introduced for touring brands in 2016.
Harley recommended an innovative new engine so better than just what had gone before that their character will be restored. It should be trustworthy, effective, and cool-running, capable of further developing. It should need hardly any oils.
In shovel engine, given that aluminum mind warmed-up and extended, it slid imperceptibly throughout the low-expansion metal cylinder, shearing and deteriorating your head gasket. Strobe scientific studies made in the dyno showed the large inertia of iron cylinders causing them to “walk” on the base gaskets. Therefore the cylinders associated with the newer development motor would be aluminum, with metal liners. Today heads, cylinders, and crankcase would all be aluminum, along with alignment dowels to keep all areas from relative motion, gasket conditions and sealing would markedly enhance.
An issue of earlier Big Twins was piston fit and piston cooling. Because an aluminum piston expands many efficient than an iron cylinder, it should be offered sufficient approval. But piston cooling needed intimate communications between hot piston and cooler cylinder. This is difficulty without a proper solution. But in adopting an aluminum cylinder in the Evo motor, they became possible to operate at a lot deeper piston approval — in studies, Harley could maintain full throttle process with approval as low as .0004 inch. How? Firstly, the aluminum cylinder extended in action with all the piston, when the piston made experience of the wall, the cooling effectation of wide-area communications prevented further piston growth. They were German-made Mahle pistons, containing 12 % silicon to cut back expansion. Production piston clearance had been ready at .0014 inches. The most notable piston ring is a chrome-plated barrel-face type, the second ring a 2-degree taper face, and the oil scraper a three-piece means.
Burning chambers are made shallower by a further decrease in valve included position to 58 levels (27 intake/31 fatigue). This, by reducing the surface area of combustion chamber and piston top (today flat) additionally cut the movement of temperature into those parts.
In period involving the two globe wars a sizable valve included position of 90-100 degrees had been considered important because it made room into the combustion chamber for large valves. It was thought especially important in long-stroke motors whose smaller bores would usually limit device dimensions. But period change—valuable work by airflow professionals like Jerry Branch, Kenny Augustine, yet others have considerably enhanced the circulation that will pass through modest valves. Because their particular work also boosted intake velocity, movement have the energy to continue moving in to the cylinders after bottom center. In this way, small valves, ready at paid off included sides, became able to provide additional atmosphere as compared to larger valves of early in the day design.
For this reason the old rehearse of “hogging aside” intake and exhaust ports leads to less torque and power. Today’s modest harbors were that dimensions for grounds.
Another way to reduce temperature flow into piston and head would be to speed-up burning, reducing enough time visibility for the material section to combustion flame. Fire was distribute from the sparkplug outward by quick, turbulent movement of the fuel-air mixture—motion generated originally by large intake velocity. To “refresh” that movement due to the fact piston nears TDC, one part of every burning chamber ended up being filled-in becoming really near to the piston crown at top center. Blend between piston and head was rapidly squeezed from this squish room, forming a jet that stirs and accelerates the burning techniques.
Another prime supply of cylinder head heating is the exhaust slot, which best problems for super-fast temperature transfer exists; extremely hot gases, going at high speed, in a turbulent condition. Sometime ago, heat flow experiments revealed that 50 % of the heat obtained by the cylinder mind comes from the fatigue port. That getting so, Evo’s fatigue harbors had been deliberately made as quick as you possibly can.
The general motion of cylinders ended up being acknowledged as certain of V-twin procedure, therefore the Evo system’s intake Y-manifold was made to put on versatile rubberized couplings in the cylinders. Pratt & Whitney had to render versatile intake contacts upon it 28-cylinder R-4360 radial, after prototypes tore their intake connections to parts.
To create engine-in-frame maintenance possible, the rocker framework, its spacer, and cap are made as layers slim enough to feel slid sideways, out from under the framework rails. Making it also possible to get rid of the heads, they were fastened into through men with bolts equal long towards mind’s thickness. With your bolts eliminated, the minds might be slid laterally and eliminated as well.
An important Evo development goals ended up being capability to withstand a 100-hour full-throttle test. Evo system assessment totaled 5600 hours, road-testing 750,000 miles. With its brand-new soothing capability, oil-tightness, and technical stability, these machines could consistently become ridden coast-to-coast.
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Harley-Davidson history Softail studio side-view
Courtesy of Harley-Davidson
Harley-Davidson history Softail.
1983 in order to avoid wagering the farm on Evo, the shovel had been held in manufacturing for some time. Early development heads had been sand-cast in alloy 242 (equivalent employed for the heads of wartime aircraft machines). This material, containing copper, nickel, and magnesium, kinds hard intermetallic substances whilst cools and ages, giving it outstanding hot strength.
1984 deals tend to be 38,741—up 31 percent. Last solid-mounted Shovel motors leave the line June in 2010. 1340cc development engine in five versions was 20 lbs light than previous.
1985 best drives are typical tooth belt today. At mid-year, the interim use of sand-cast cylinder heads offered method to die-casting.
1986 unique intake and exhaust techniques concentrate on reduced sound (crossover pipe in exhaust, for instance). Connecting-rod big-end roller cages was aluminum but had been now turned to M-section plated metal cages. Cycle magazine dynos a Softail’s Evo system, reading 56 hp at 5000 rpm, peak torque of 69 lb.-ft. at 3000. Be aware that to riders, torque is certainly not lots but alternatively a feeling. A “torquey” engine is one that pulls equally strongly at nearly every rpm—it just isn’t peaky. Top torque was torque sized at their greatest point, but to-be torquey an engine has to have highest torque every where.
1987 Harley issues initial community offering of stock. Keihin 38mm carburetor. Brand new cameras with 24 per cent less intake length, 28 percent less fatigue length of time, and 14 percentage less raise. The cooler-running Evo motor was planning able to tolerate considerably compression and was handed 8.5:1 by 1987. There is not any difficulties with working same ignition timing on forward and back cylinders (As mentioned by Vincent fashion designer Phil Irving in his autobiography, a corner cylinder of an air-cooled V-twin operates hotter versus front side. To stop it from detonating it absolutely was typical to retard the time of rear cylinder). As sized by sparkplug washer thermocouple, an Evo engine works 75 levels F colder than a shovel underneath the same problems.
Evo oils stress light could flicker on hot days (indicating oil viscosity loss).
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Harley-Davidson motorcycle at Nyc Stock Exchange.
Due to Harley-Davidson
Harley-Davidson noted on Ny Stock-exchange
1988 Keihin 38mm butterfly carbohydrate continues, as do 8.5:1 compression. Oil capability are 3 quarts. Dyno output was 55 hp, 69.4 lb.-ft. of torque at 3000 rpm, latest 32 amp alternator.
An earlier VR1000 (Harley’s Superbike racer) design includes a gerotor oil pump on the crank, getting rid of bearings, a shaft, and drive gears. “Gerotor” means “generated rotor,” composed of two gear-like members—an outer one with inward-facing “teeth” (a lot more like lumps, actually) and an off-center internal rotor that drives it by complementary outward-facing “teeth.” Crank mounting didn’t run the VR because its large rpm triggered pump cavitation. But the idea was remembered later for the P-22 (Twin-Cam) venture.
1989 brand new 1.6-hp beginner, latest case, for faster hot-starting. Electric cruise control introduced. Carburetor has become Keihin CV (constant cleaner means), slips into plastic manifold versus old two-bolt mounting.
1990 New clutch, 40mm Keihin.
1993 Harley-Davidson manufacturing this current year are 85,000 devices.
1995 gasoline shot becomes an alternative. Marelli EFI available 1995-2001. Carburetor alternative was Keihin CVK40. A carburetor try a passive fuel system—running high in warm weather and leaner in cooler temperatures. EFI constantly automatically readjusts gasoline blend responding to rising or falling barometer and temperature—just like a trackside race tuner does, using boxes of jets and needles.
The Harley-Davidson Evolution V-twin brings the company into a unique era of success and track record of trustworthy overall performance.
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The Evolution engine (popularly known as Evo) is an air-cooled, 45-degree, V-twin engine manufactured from 1984 by Harley-Davidson for the company’s motorcycles.
The Evolution of Harley-Davidson. A look back at more than a century of tough motorcycles. … Get TIME photos and pictures of the week delivered directly to your inbox.
The Harley-Davidson Evolution V-twin delivers the company into a new era of prosperity and reputation for reliable performance. RELATED STORIES:
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The oil-tight engine that saved Harley-Davidson motorcycles – 1984 Harley-Davidson Softail/V2 Evolution from the August, 2010 issue of Hemmings Motor News